CUSTOMISED SUPPLEMENTS

Personalised formulations that are specific to YOU,
because one size does not fit all when it comes to nutrition.

WHAT YOU WILL RECEIVE

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1 x 60-day supply of capsules (taken at your first meal)

1 x 60-day supply of powder (taken 1-2 hours before bed)

The actual number of capsules and the amount of powder will depend on your particular formulation. We’ve chosen to provide 60 days of supply to give you enough time to assess any changes to your overall wellness, sense of vitality and daily productivity. 60-day quantities also delivers a lower cost-per-serve than smaller quantities.

Certain nutrients go into capsules while others are provided in powder form, to help reduce the number of capsules that you’re asked to take each day and ensure we have synergistic nutrients working together for best effect. No gluten, no wheat, no yeast.

BENEFITS

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LESS GUESS-WORK

Your supplements are designed specifically for you, produced for you and sent directly to you.

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HIGH QUALITY
Prepared by pharmacists in world-class facilities, using premium nutrient forms and combinations.
Additional benefits
NUTRIENT INSURANCE
 
We aim to avoid deficiencies and replenish the nutrients that you are at risk of depleting each day.
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FEWER PRODUCTS

Personalising your supplements may help cover more needs with fewer items, reducing the overall number of supplements that you need to buy and consume.

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INFORMED DOSAGES

Our dosages are guided by modern scientific research. The nutrient forms and quantities we recommend are in-line with many practitioner-level supplements.

WHY SUPPLEMENT AT ALL?

There are various reasons why certain people may require higher amounts of key nutrients and dietary compounds to support their health and lifestyles. Click on each of the five drop-downs to learn more.

Keep in mind that supplements are supplementary. They complement, not replace, a health and balanced diet, adequate sleep, sufficient physical activity and effective stress management. 

Dietary inadequacy – poor food choices and eating behaviours, significant food restriction, hypocaloric diets and avoidance-based diets (eg. omitting entire food groups) can all lead to insufficiency of key nutrients.

High-intensity lifestyles – active individuals that exercise frequently and/or intensely, experience high levels of chronic stress, fail to get enough sleep and experience unfortunate health conditions, may find themselves depleting important micronutrients, dietary factors and essential amino acids.

Increased excretion – the accelerated elimination of certain nutrients and dietary compounds can occur via urine, faeces, sweat or blood during periods of stress, excessive physical activity, injury and disease.

Impaired absorption – dysfunctional digestive processes, gut problems, chronic stress, overactive sympathetic nervous system activity and poor sleep quality may all impact how much of the food you eat is actually made available for your body to process.

Ineffective nutrient utilisation – certain medications and genetic polymorphisms may affect your body’s ability to actually use the nutrients that it absorbs. Disrupted biochemical activity may reduce metabolic processes and the conversion of certain nutrients into their active forms.

OPTIMISING YOUR HEALTH & WELLNESS

Supplementation is a key part of optimising your health and wellness,
but it doesn’t work in isolation.
Supplementation is key
Customised Supplements

HOW WE DO IT

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1. CONSULTATION

You’ll complete our simple online questionnaire in around 5-10 minutes. It’ll ask you a series of relevant questions that relates to your diet, lifestyle, exercise, sleep, stress, health and medications.
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2. INTERPRETATION

Your answers are then interpreted by our advanced nutritional analytics system which will identify the key micronutrients, amino acids and dietary compounds that may benefit your wellbeing the most.
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3. FORMULATION

You’ll be advised of your unique formulation, the product format (eg. capsules and powders) and pricing. From there, you’ll be able to set up your account and place your order.
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4. PREPARATION

Our pharmacists will then prepare your unique compounds in world-class, state-of-the-art compounding-only facilities and send them to the delivery address that you provide.
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5. OPTIMISATION

After taking delivery of your CUSTOMISED SUPPLEMENTS products, you may just find yourself in possession of the most dialled-in supplementation that you have ever experienced. From here, it’s onwards and upwards for your wellness, productivity and sense of vitality!

THE NUTRIENTS WE USE

People who may benefit from supplementing with this micronutrient: highly-active individuals, those on hypocaloric (weight-loss or weight-cutting) diets and those who frequently consume alcoholic beverages. Vitamins B1, B2, B3 and B5 are commonly supplemented together due to their synergistic metabolic roles.

Vitamin B1 (thiamine) is a water-soluble vitamin which functions as a cofactor for several enzymes that play a role in energy production and nucleic acid synthesis. Thiamine is not stored to any significant extent in the body, so the turnover rate of thiamine is relatively rapid.

Main functions: energy production, carbohydrates and protein (amino acid) metabolism, involved in the biosynthesis of neurotransmitters (acetylcholine and GABA), supports the nervous system and is required for nerve conduction and muscle action.

Common signs and symptoms of deficiency or sub-optimal nutrient status: tiredness or fatigue, weakness, loss of appetite, irritability, poor memory, difficulty with mental concentration, sleep disturbances, vague headaches, abdominal discomfort and constipation.

Good dietary sources: animal proteins such as pork or beef, legumes, brewer’s yeast, beans, unroasted peanuts, nuts and grain cereals.

Safety: Orally administered thiamine is generally well tolerated and is considered safe.

People who may benefit from supplementing with this micronutrient: highly-active individuals, those on hypocaloric (weight-loss or weight-cutting) diets, those who frequently consume alcoholic beverages and where a known MTHFR genetic polymorphism is present. Vitamins B1, B2, B3 and B5 are commonly supplemented together due to their synergistic metabolic roles.

Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) is a water-soluble vitamin which functions mainly in the coenzyme forms, flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). Riboflavin is not stored to any significant extent in the body and is regularly excreted in the urine.

Main functions: energy (ATP) production, carbohydrates, fats and protein (amino acid) metabolism, supports antioxidant activity via glutathione-reductase, aids in the repair and growth of bodily tissues, skin, hair and nails, activates vitamin B6 and folate, involved in the production of red blood cells and thyroid hormones.

Common signs and symptoms of deficiency or sub-optimal nutrient status: weakness, redness or soreness of the tongue, lips and/or corners of the mouth, decreased visual function, watery eyes and skin issues such as seborrheic dermatitis.

Good dietary sources: dairy products, eggs, legumes, meat, fish, poultry, green leafy vegetables, fruits, and grains

Safety: No toxic or adverse effects of high riboflavin intake in humans are known.

People who may benefit from supplementing with this micronutrient: highly-active individuals, those on hypocaloric (weight-loss or weight-cutting) diets, those on low-protein diets (especially where tryptophan intake is suspected to be low), those who frequently consume alcoholic beverages and people with dyslipidaemia (elevated LDL-cholesterol). Vitamins B1, B2, B3 and B5 are commonly supplemented together due to their synergistic metabolic roles.

Vitamin B3 (niacin) is a water-soluble vitamin which occurs naturally in 2 forms: niacin (also called nicotinic acid) and niacinamide (also called nicotinamide). Vitamin B3 is a precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). Niacin is not stored to any significant extent in the body and is regularly excreted in the urine.

Main functions: energy (ATP) production, fatty acid synthesis, cholesterol and steroid hormone synthesis, regulates gene expression, involved in blood sugar regulation, antioxidant and detoxification pathways.

Common signs and symptoms of deficiency or sub-optimal nutrient status: skin conditions such as dermatitis, digestive discomfort, inflammation of the mouth and tongue (often presenting as a bright red tongue) diarrhoea, sensitivity to light, nervousness, headaches, forgetfulness and lethargy.

Good dietary sources: red meat, chicken, fish (especially ‘red fleshed fish’ like tuna and salmon), whole grains, legumes, yeast and dairy products.

Safety: Some issues have been observed with very high dosages of nicotinic acid at 750 mg – 1.5 g per day. CUSTOMISED SUPPLEMENTS will not supply dosages higher 75 mg per day, which is between 5% and 10% of that range.

People who may benefit from supplementing with this micronutrient: high-pace individuals (particularly those who are chronically stressed), people on restrictive diets and those often feel lethargic or low in energy. Vitamins B1, B2, B3 and B5 are commonly supplemented together due to their synergistic metabolic roles.

Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) is a water-soluble vitamin which is a component of coenzyme A (CoA). Pantothenic acid is not stored to any significant extent in the body and is used in foundational metabolic process and stress hormone production.

Main functions: Coenzyme A synthesis for cellular energy production, supports stress pathways and adrenal function, promotes wound healing and is involved in the synthesis of steroid hormones, cholesterol, amino acids and vitamin D.

Common signs and symptoms of deficiency or sub-optimal nutrient status: impaired adrenal function, numbness, tingling or burning sensation in the feet, muscle weakness, fatigue, recurrent respiratory tract infections, low stomach acid and upper stomach discomfort.

Good dietary sources: organ meats (eg. liver or kidney), fish, shellfish, chicken, egg yolk, milk, legumes, mushrooms, sweet potatoes, avocadoes and broccoli.

Safety: Pantothenic acid is regarded as safe, and is not known to be toxic in humans.

People who may benefit from supplementing with this micronutrient: those with a known MTHFR polymorphism (supplemented alongside methylfolate and methylcobalamin), those with poor diets high in refined grains and canned foods, people suffering from low mood states, people who drink alcohol frequently or excessively and those with anaemia (supplemented with iron and vitamin B12).

Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) is a water-soluble vitamin of which pyridoxal-5-phosphate is activated form which functions as cofactor in more than 50 different enzymes. It is found mostly in muscle tissue, however is not stored long-term within the body and is excreted primarily in the urine, largely as the metabolite, 4-pyridoxic acid.

Main functions: involved as a coenzyme in various processes including protein metabolism, the synthesis of haem, the production of serotonin and GABA, DNA synthesis and hormonal modulation.

Common signs and symptoms of deficiency or sub-optimal nutrient status: low energy, fatigue, mood changes, anxiety, confusion, muscle aches or pains, worsening PMS symptoms, worsening anaemic symptoms

Good dietary sources: potatoes, bananas, red meat, poultry, fish, and unrefined whole grains.

Safety: Vitamin B6 is generally safe at typical supplemental dosages, however there have been reported instances of sensory neuropathy occurring at excessive dosages. The Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine set the tolerable upper intake level for pyridoxine at 100 mg/day for adults; Customised Supplements will provide a maximum supplemental dosage at one-quarter of this, 25 mg per day.

People who may benefit from this micronutrient: physically-active individuals, those with very busy lifestyles, people who need to/are attempting to lose fat (especially in conjunction with aerobic exercise), those who often feel lethargic or low in energy, and people with poor blood-sugar control.

Vitamin B7 (also known as vitamin H or biotin) is a water-soluble vitamin which is an essential cofactor to metabolic enzymes and is a key regulator of gene expression. Biotin is excreted primarily in the urine, mostly as free biotin and partly as metabolites.

Main functions: blood glucose regulation, energy production (especially important in fatty acid oxidation), gene expression and the promotion of healthy skin, hair and nails.

Common signs and symptoms of deficiency or sub-optimal nutrient status: hair loss (alopecia), scaly skin rashes that may occur on the face and genitals, tiredness, low mood, numbness and tingling of the toes and fingers, unusual facial fat distribution, elevated serum cholesterol and muscle pain.

Good dietary sources: egg yolks, liver, red meat, chicken, fish, dairy products, nuts and beans.

Safety: Biotin is not known to be toxic and is considered safe to supplement.

People who may benefit from supplementing with this micronutrient: those with a known MTHFR polymorphism (in the methylfolate form of the supplement), those who often feel lethargic or have a low mood, or those that are also supplementing with vitamin B12.

Vitamin B9 (folate, or ‘folic acid’ when in supplemental form) is a water-soluble vitamin that is critical, often in conjunction with vitamin B12, in the metabolism of nucleic acid precursors, some amino acids and in methylation reactions and nervous system processes. Folate excretion increases with increasing intake, and may occur via both urinary and faecal routes.

Main functions: cellular division and growth, as a coenzyme for methylation reactions (including vitamin B12 activation and reduction of homocysteine), red blood cell production and maturity.

Common signs and symptoms of deficiency or sub-optimal nutrient status: impaired red blood cell metabolism, megaloblastic anaemia, elevated homocysteine, low mood, anxiety, fatigue and depressed immune system.

Good dietary sources: green leafy vegetables, organ meats, citrus fruits, legumes (including peanuts), brewer’s yeast and some fortified foods (eg. cereals and breads).

Safety: Folic acid is generally considered safe for supplementation, however may mask vitamin B12 deficiency if large dosages are taken. CUSTOMISED SUPPLEMENTS aligns with the Food and Nutrition Board of the US Institute of Medicine advice to limit supplemental folic acid to a maximum of 1000 mcg (1 mg) per day.

People who may benefit from supplementing with this micronutrient: those with a known MTHFR polymorphism or high levels of homocysteine (supplemented alongside methylfolate and possibly, vitamin B6), those with low stomach acid, vegans, vegetarians, people with anaemia which is not driven by inadequate folate ingestion (including pernicious anaemia) and those suffering ongoing “brain fog”.

Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is a water-soluble vitamin group that includes the cobalt-containing compounds that are collectively called cobalamins, integral to human metabolism. The body has the ability to store vitamin B12 in the liver, however when it is excreted, it is done so in the bile and in the urine.

Main functions: the synthesis of DNA, red blood cell development and formation, homocysteine metabolism, S-adenosylmethionine production, healthy nervous system function and promotion of the immune system.

Common signs and symptoms of deficiency or sub-optimal nutrient status: pernicious anaemia, macrocytic anaemia, neurological dysfunction or disorders, memory loss, depressed mood, confusion, reddened or swollen tongue, impaired immune system, brittle nails and decreased circulation.

Good dietary sources: given that only bacteria can synthesis vitamin B12, the group is almost exclusively found naturally in animal products such as red meat, poultry, seafood, dairy foods and eggs. Some fortified non-dairy milks, meat substitutes, breakfast cereals, and certain nutritional yeast products may also contain vitamin B12.

Safety: No toxic or adverse effects have been associated with large intakes of vitamin B from food or supplements in healthy people.

People who may benefit from supplementing with this micronutrient: people with a low fruit and vegetable intake, those who are frequently ill or with an impaired immune function, those under chronic stress and workplace pressure, those with skin issues or weak gums.

Vitamin C is a water-soluble, essential nutrient, antioxidant and cofactor in various enzymatic processes of the body. Vitamin C is excreted primarily in the urine.

Main functions: protection against oxidative stress and free radicals as an antioxidant, the synthesis of collagen and carnitine, wound healing, stress and adrenal support, production and function of immune cells and has antihistamine properties.

Common signs and symptoms of deficiency or sub-optimal nutrient status: bleeding abnormalities including bleeding gums, poor wound healing, easily bruised, hair loss, bone pain or disorders, muscle pain, reduced iron absorption, fatigue, emotional changes and impaired immune function.

Good dietary sources: oranges, grapefruit, kiwifruit and strawberries, capsicum, broccoli, tomatoes, Brussel sprouts, cauliflower, leafy greens (e.g. spinach) and potatoes.

Safety: Considered safe. Even at excessive dosages (up to 10,000 mg / day in adults), there is no reliable scientific evidence to suggest any effects that are detrimental to health. Despite this, CUSTOMISED SUPPLEMENTS have set maximum daily supplemental vitamin C dosages at 1000 mg. People suffering from haemochromatosis should not supplement with vitamin C before discussing this with their doctor.

People who may benefit from supplementing with this micronutrient: people with a poor-functioning immune system, those with vision conditions, regular consumers of alcohol and those with chronic skin complaints.

Vitamin A (retinol) is a fat-soluble compound present in some foods and capable of being synthesized by the body from dietary beta-carotene (although this is limited). Vitamin A can be stored in the body in high quantities and is excreted as needed in the urine and feces, largely as metabolites.

Main functions: supports eyesight (especially night blindness), promotes healthy skin and is effective in the improvement of some skin conditions such as psoriasis and acne, promotes the immune system by defending against infections, maintains epithelial tissue that lines the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, the eyes and nose.

Common signs and symptoms of deficiency or sub-optimal nutrient status: impaired night vision, skin conditions, increased susceptibility to sickness and infection, thyroid dysfunction, loss of appetite and impaired sperm production.

Good dietary sources: Liver, fish oils (e.g. cod liver oil), eggs, butter, whole milk, sweet potato, fortified cereals. Beta-carotene (retinol precursor) is found in carrots, spinach, kale, mangoes and broccoli.

Safety: Vitamin A toxicity is rare from the diet and standard supplemental doses.

Like any fat-soluble vitamin, vitamin A is rapidly absorbed but slowly cleared by the body so can accumulate. CUSTOMISED SUPPLEMENTS will only supplement vitamin A at dosages between 2000 IU and 3000 IU for those people that have been determined to have an increased supplemental requirement. There is some evidence of acute toxicity where vitamin A supplementation is more than 25000 IU (approximately 10 times the recommended dosage).

People who may benefit from supplementing with this micronutrient: people who receive insufficient sunshine exposure throughout the year, shift workers, those with poor immune function and those with osteopenia or osteoporosis.

Vitamin D (vitamin D3, or cholecalciferol, as supplemented) is a fat-soluble compound that occurs naturally in some foods, and can also be synthesized in the skin from a vitamin D precursor after exposure to the sun or other ultraviolet light. It’s estimate that one in three Australians could be vitamin D deficient in the winter, and around 10% even at the end of summer.

Main functions: enhances dietary absorption of calcium and phosphorus, promote bone mineralisation and may reduce bone loss via remodelling processes, involved in regulating calcium within the blood, promotes cellular growth and differentiation, potent immune system modulator and is involved in insulin secretion.

Common signs and symptoms of deficiency or sub-optimal nutrient status: bone pain, softening of the bones, muscle weakness, bodily aches, tension headaches, fatigue, impaired immune function, elevated blood sugar.

Good dietary sources: salmon, mackerel, sardines, cod liver oil, egg yolk, fortified dairy and cereals.

Safety: Vitamin D toxicity is rare from the diet and standard supplemental doses.

Like any fat-soluble vitamin, vitamin D is slowly cleared by the body so can accumulate. CUSTOMISED SUPPLEMENTS will only supplement vitamin D3 at dosages up to 1000 IU per day, however should not be taken by people suffering with hyperparathyroidism, nor those taking calcium channel blockers. The National Health and Medical Research Council has established an upper limit of 3200 IU of vitamin D per day, and the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine have established a tolerable upper intake level of 4000 IU per day.

People who may benefit from supplementing with this micronutrient: people with ongoing skin conditions, those suffering from diabetes, people with high blood pressure or cardiovascular complications, those with reduced immune function, people consuming low-fat diets and people who have a higher requirement for antioxidants.

Vitamin E refers to a group of fat-soluble vitamins with important antioxidant activity. Of the four tocopherols within the group, alpha-tocopherol has the highest biological activity and is often used synonymously with vitamin E.

Main functions: a potent antioxidant, helpful in the treatment of skin conditions such as psoriasis, reduces oxidative stress from conditions such as type 2 diabetes, may assist in slowing the aging process of cells, protects the integrity of red blood cells, can help to prevent cardiovascular plaque formation, blood vessel health and prevents the oxidation of LDL-cholesterol.

Common signs and symptoms of deficiency or sub-optimal nutrient status: impaired balance and coordination, peripheral neuropathy, muscle weakness, various skin conditions, damage to the retina, cellular oxidation (including) atherosclerosis.

Good dietary sources: alpha-tocopherol rich sources include nuts (e.g. almonds and hazelnuts) and seeds, egg yolks, whole grains, sunflower oil, olive oil, some fatty fish and leafy green vegetables.

Safety: At typical supplemental dosages, vitamin E has not shown any predictable adverse effects. Even at very high dosages (800 – 1,600 IU per day), many times that of which CUSTOMISED SUPPLEMENTS will recommend, this micronutrient has shown to be well tolerated in clinical trials.

People who may benefit from supplementing with this micronutrient: those with cardiovascular complications or increased risk of heart disease, those with type 2 diabetes (or improper blood sugar control) and those taking supplemental vitamin D and calcium.

Vitamin K2 (menaquinones) is a fat-soluble vitamin group synthesized by colonic bacteria that are present in some foods, known mostly for its role in bone health and regulation of calcium deposition.

Main functions: prevention of inappropriate calcium deposition in blood vessels and body tissues, promotes sexual health (promotes gene expression to enable sex hormone production), supports insulin production and insulin sensitivity to help maintain healthy blood sugar levels.

Common signs and symptoms of deficiency or sub-optimal nutrient status: while vitamin K1 deficiency may be associated with impaired blood clotting which leads to bleeding, inadequate K2 in the body may lead to reduced bone health, development of osteoporosis and calcification of the arteries.

Good dietary sources: fermented foods such as kimchi and natto (soybeans), cheese, butter, egg yolks some meats and chicken liver.

Safety: There is no known toxicity associated with dietary or supplemental vitamin K1 or vitamin K2. Those taking anticoagulant medications should speak to their doctor before taking any vitamin K supplementation, especially vitamin K1.

People who may benefit from supplementing with this micronutrient: ageing populations, those with bone loss, those with leg cramps, people with weak teeth or brittle bones, people who are highly active or those working in in hot climates.

Calcium is a mineral that is a major constituent of bones and teeth, making up approximately 2% of total body weight, and is essential in cell signaling and muscular contraction. Calcium is excreted primarily in the urine and feces. Some calcium is also excreted in the sweat, and in highly active individuals substantial amounts of calcium can be lost through that route.

Main functions: critical to the development of bones and teeth, helps to control the heartbeat, involved in nerve transmission, muscle contraction, blood clotting and in the maintenance of mucosal membranes and cell wall integrity.

Common signs and symptoms of deficiency or sub-optimal nutrient status: overt calcium deficiency is rare due to the body’s homeostatic mechanisms to maintain calcium availability by drawing upon calcium reservoirs in bone tissue, however it has been claimed that the average Australian only consumes 70-80% of the RDI of calcium. The main consequence of low calcium intake is osteoporosis, however other symptoms such as high blood pressure, weight gain, premenstrual syndrome (in women) and brittle nails.

Good dietary sources: kale, broccoli, bok choy, spinach (steamed or sautéed), dairy products, salmon and sardines (consumed with bones), oranges, figs, black beans and kidney beans.

Safety: The Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine set the tolerable upper intake level for calcium at 2500 mg/day, however should not be taken by people suffering with hyperparathyroidism, nor those taking calcium channel blockers.

People who may benefit from supplementing with this micronutrient: highly-active people, people feeling crampy or tense, those with sleeping difficulties, people with high blood pressure or with cardiovascular risk factors.

Magnesium is an essential mineral and cofactor in over 300 enzymes across a multitude of physiologic pathways. It is the second most abundant mineral in soft tissue, behind potassium. It is excreted in the urine and faeces, and to a small extent in the sweat. Magnesium homeostasis in the body is regulated primarily by the kidney.

Main functions: energy production as part of the ATP complex, protein and DNA synthesis, cell signalling, structural functions, cardiac function, modulation of blood clotting, blood vessel dilation and antispasmodic effects on skeletal and smooth muscle.

Common signs and symptoms of deficiency or sub-optimal nutrient status: muscle cramps and twitches, chest tightness, low mood, anxiety, irritability, headaches, intestinal discomfort and spasms, palpitations, fatigue and lethargy.

Good dietary sources: leafy green vegetables (remember that over 50% of magnesium can be lost in the water if vegetables are boiled), fish, chicken, red meats, dairy products, legumes, nuts, brown rice and bananas.

Safety: Magnesium supplementation is generally well tolerated, however should not be taken by people with renal impairment without medical advice and supervision. The Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine set the tolerable upper intake level for magnesium at 350 mg/day which represents the highest level of daily supplemental magnesium intake likely to pose no risk of diarrhoea or gastrointestinal disturbance in almost all individuals.

People who may benefit from supplementing with this micronutrient: those who get ill frequently, those with skin conditions or poor wound healing, males of reproductive age, those with blood sugar dysregulation, people with altered taste perception and those with prostate issues.

Zinc is a cofactor for hundreds of metalloenzymes and is involved in many biochemical pathways, including DNA and protein synthesis. Secretion of zinc into the intestinal tract (largely from pancreatic secretions) is the major route of zinc elimination.

Main functions: promotion of growth, visual function, hearing, taste sensation, sperm production, immune system support, wound healing, cell membrane stability and antioxidant roles.

Common signs and symptoms of deficiency or sub-optimal nutrient status: impaired taste sensation, dermatitis, low sperm count and/or serum testosterone, reduced ability for wounds to heal, diminished immune function and susceptibility to infection, night blindness, hair loss (alopecia) and concentration difficulties.

Good dietary sources: seafood (fish and shellfish), legumes (including peanuts), whole grains, dairy foods, nuts, seeds and egg yolks.

Safety: Well tolerated at modest supplemental dosages, however very high dosages of zinc at 225 mg, or more, has been shown to lead to gastrointestinal distress and nausea, and long-term supplementation of zinc may impact copper status. This is why CUSTOMISED SUPPLEMENTS will only supply daily supplemental dosages of zinc at a maximum of 40 mg, always alongside copper.

People who may benefit from supplementing with this micronutrient: those also supplementing with zinc, people with susceptibility to illness and infection, people suffering from poor bone mineralization and those with poor blood sugar regulation.

Copper is a mineral and cofactor for the enzyme, lysyl oxidase, which enhances tissue integrity by catalyzing the cross-linking of connective tissue proteins. Copper is excreted mainly in the bile; small amounts are also lost in the urine and sweat.

Main functions: promotes wound healing, support the immune system, involved in bone mineralisation, helps to regulate cholesterol and blood glucose, anti-inflammatory actions and the formation of melanin.

Common signs and symptoms of deficiency or sub-optimal nutrient status: increased inflammatory responses, impaired immune function (inclusive of neutropenia), increased susceptibility to infection, bone lesions, anaemia, glucose intolerance and optic neuropathy.

Good dietary sources: fish, shellfish, chicken, red meat, nuts, legumes and mushrooms.

Safety: Copper toxicity is rare in the general population. The Food and Nutrition Board set the tolerable upper intake level for copper at 10 mg/day from food and supplements.

People who may benefit from supplementing with this micronutrient: those with ongoing fatigue or lethargy, people with muscle cramps and those with elevated or decreased blood pressure.

Potassium is the most abundant mineral (ion) inside the cells of the human body and is essential for fluid and electrolyte balance. It is excreted primarily in the urine, and body potassium levels are regulated in large part by homeostatic mechanisms in the kidney. Potassium is also excreted to some extent in the faeces and sweat.

Main functions: cardiac function, blood pressure regulation, neuronal transmission, muscle contraction.

Common signs and symptoms of deficiency or sub-optimal nutrient status: fatigue or lethargy, weakness, muscle cramps, heart palpitations, cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, and postural hypotension.

Good dietary sources: bananas, oranges, grapefruit, tomatoes, avocados, potatoes and sweet potatoes (skin on), spinach, whole grains, fish, red meat and poultry.

Safety: Generally well tolerated. The Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine have not set a tolerable upper intake level for potassium because adverse effects from high dietary intakes of potassium have not been reported in healthy individuals. People with renal dysfunction or those taking antihypertensive medications should discuss potassium supplementation with their doctor before taking.

People who may benefit from supplementing with this micronutrient: people who are feeling lethargic or run-down, those with anaemia (especially females), people that don’t consume animal proteins, those that take a long time to recover from illnesses and those who feel a little ‘foggy’ with their concentration.

Iron is an integral component of haemoglobin and therefore essential for the delivery of oxygen throughout the body. Iron deficiency is the most common micronutrient deficiency in the world, affecting more than 30% of people, most notably, women of child-bearing age. Iron is lost mainly through the intestine, with lesser amounts lost in the urine and through the shedding of skin cells.

Main functions: oxygenation of the blood and tissues, mitochondrial energy production, involved in the synthesis of thyroid hormone, plays a role in immune function and is used in the conversion of the amino acid, tyrosine, to dopamine.

Common signs and symptoms of deficiency or sub-optimal nutrient status: iron-deficiency anaemia, fatigue, poor energy, decreased aerobic capacity, muscle fatigue, poor concentration, mood disturbances, hair loss, restless legs syndrome, impaired immune function and cracking in the corners of the mouth.

Good dietary sources: Haem-iron can be found in red meat, chicken and fish. Non-haem sources include leafy green vegetables, beans and whole grains, however it should be noted that for most individuals, non-haem iron absorption may be below 20% of total intake. Vitamin C can help with non-haem iron absorption.

Safety: Supplemental iron at dosages commonly used to treat deficiency may cause some gastrointestinal upset in some people, however the likelihood of this may be reduced by taking iron supplementation with food. The Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine and the National Health and Medical Research Centre have established a tolerable upper intake level for iron at 45 mg which is a level that is intended to avoid deficiency states while preventing gastrointestinal distress. People with kidney or liver issues, or those with iron disorders such as haemochromatosis should not supplement with iron without consulting with their doctor first.

People who may benefit from supplementing with this micronutrient: people that drink alcohol frequently or excessively, those with thyroid issues, males with fertility challenges and people that have an impaired immune system.

Selenium is a trace mineral and an important part of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase. It is an effective antioxidant, especially when combined with vitamin E. Selenium is excreted in the urine and feces. Selenium homeostasis is maintained primarily by the kidneys.

Main functions: antioxidant effects such as protecting intracellular structures by preventing the development of free radicals, slows chemical ageing processes, contributes to elasticity of tissues and organs, enables thyroid hormone conversion and activation.

Common signs and symptoms of deficiency or sub-optimal nutrient status: hair loss, growth impairment, fertility issues, anaemia, pancreatic atrophy, immune system depression and thyroid dysfunction.

Good dietary sources: Brazil nuts, organ meats, fish (such as tuna and salmon, shellfish, chicken, brown rice, mushrooms, asparagus.

Safety: The Food and Nutrition Board of the US Institute of Medicine and the National Health and Medical Research Council have set the tolerable upper intake level for selenium at 400 mcg/day in adults based on the prevention of hair and nail brittleness and loss and early signs of chronic selenium toxicity. Long-term ingestion of excessive levels of selenium at 1000 mcg per day may produce adverse effects, however CUSTOMISED SUPPLEMENTS will only supply daily supplemental dosages of selenium at a maximum of 100 mcg, which is 1/10th of this.

People who may benefit from supplementing with this micronutrient: people that avoid seafood, those with thyroid complications.

Iodine is a mineral and an essential constituent of the thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3).

Main functions: helps to maintain normal thyroid function (avoiding iodine-deficient hypothyroidism).

Common signs and symptoms of deficiency or sub-optimal nutrient status: enlargement of the thyroid gland (goiter), hypothyroidism, cognitive impairment,

Good dietary sources: Dairy products such as milk and cheese, chicken, eggs, iodised salt, certain fish (e.g. cod, tuna), prawns and potatoes (skin on).

Safety: Generally safe at modest supplemental dosages. The Food and Nutrition Board of the US Institute of Medicine and the National Health and Medical Research Council have set the tolerable upper intake level for selenium at 1100 mcg/day in adults.

People who may benefit from supplementing with this micronutrient: people with diabetes or insulin resistance (including those overweight or obese), those with high cholesterol or dyslipidaemia, those with peripheral circulatory issues.

Chromium is an essential trace mineral that potentiates the action of insulin and is a component of Glucose Tolerance Factor (GTF). Chromium is excreted primarily in the urine, although some absorbed chromium is secreted into the intestine.

Main functions: promotes blood glucose regulation, influences metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins.

Common signs and symptoms of deficiency or sub-optimal nutrient status: poor blood glucose control, higher circulating insulin levels, weight loss, impaired protein synthesis (due to a negative nitrogen balance) elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides (fatty acids), peripheral neuropathy, some impairment of cerebral process (including confusion) and fertility issues.

Good dietary sources: Broccoli, grapes, bananas, whole grains, some processed meats, nuts and egg yolks.

Safety: Considered to be well-tolerated by most, with no adverse effects convincingly linked with excessive intake of trivalent chromium. Neither the Food and Nutrition Board of the US Institute of Medicine nor the National Health and Medical Research Council have set a tolerable upper limit for chromium.

People who may benefit from supplementing with this amino acid derivative: people seeking to lose body fat (those overweight or obese), people with risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, those with elevated LDL-cholesterol and/or triglycerides.

Carnitine (as L-carnitine) is a trimethylated amino acid – derived from lysine – that is essential for the transformation of fatty acids into energy for muscular activity. This transformation occurs in the mitochondria, producing coenzyme A. Carnitine is largely concentrated in cardiac and skeletal muscle cells, however high concentrations are also found in the male reproductive tract and in the brain.

Main functions: energy production, enables oxidation of fats, has been linked to weight loss and aerobic endurance, supports sperm quality and motility, immune system modulation.

Common signs and symptoms of deficiency or sub-optimal nutrient status: outright deficiency rates are deemed to be low given that the body can synthesise carnitine from lysine and methionine in healthy individuals, however there are certain individuals that may benefit from higher intakes of supplemental carnitine to align with their lifestyles and wellness goals.

Good dietary sources: Red meat (especially beef and pork), chicken, fish, and some dairy products are the richest sources.

Safety: Considered to be well tolerated by most. No toxic effects relating to L-carnitine have been reported.

People who may benefit from supplementing with this amino acid derivative: people with sleep difficulties, those with depressed mood, those with chronic bodily aches and people suffering recurrent headaches.

5-HTP (5-Hydroxytryptophan or L-5-hydroxytryptophan) is a metabolite of L-tryptophan and an immediate precursor to serotonin, requiring cofactors Vitamin C, Vitamin B6, zinc and magnesium for the effective conversion.

Main functions: may help to support and promote a positive mood, reduce episodic insomnia, reduce sleep terrors, contribute towards a reduction in the frequency and severity of headaches, help reduce pain and improve symptoms of fibromyalgia.

Common signs and symptoms of deficiency or sub-optimal nutrient status: not applicable as 5-HTP; will be covered in Tryptophan (the precursor to 5-HTP).

Good dietary sources: 5-HTP is general only provided as a supplement, however can be found in the Griffonia simplicifolia seed.

Safety: Very few adverse effects of 5-HTP supplementation have been reported. Mild gastrointestinal upset may occur in some people, but this is rare. Individuals taking antidepressant drugs, such as MAOIs or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), or other prescription drugs, should consult with their physician before taking 5-HTP. 

People who may benefit from supplementing with this amino acid: people with sleep difficulties, those with depressed mood or inability to relax, those with chronic bodily aches and people suffering recurrent headaches.

Tryptophan (as L-tryptophan) is an essential amino acid. In addition to functioning as a building block for protein synthesis, tryptophan is a precursor to niacin, serotonin, melatonin, and picolinic acid (which plays a role in the absorption of zinc and possibly other minerals).

Main functions: may help to support and promote a positive mood, reduce episodic insomnia and restless legs syndrome, help reduce pain and improve symptoms of fibromyalgia, precursor to certain micronutrients and neurotransmitters.

Common signs and symptoms of deficiency or sub-optimal nutrient status: general impairment of protein synthesis, mood and sleep issues, restlessness, headaches.

Good dietary sources: Nuts and seeds (especially pumpkin seeds, pistachios, cashews and almonds), soy beans, red meat, chicken, fish, shellfish and oats.

Safety: Considered to be well tolerated by most. Sleepiness is the only common side effect of this amino acid, especially when taken in very high dosages.

People who may benefit from supplementing with this amino acid: people with circulatory problems, those with cardiovascular risk factors, people who participate in high-intensity or strength-based physical activity.

Arginine (L-arginine) is an amino acid that is synthesised by humans and is also present in the diet. In addition to serving as a building block for protein synthesis, arginine is a precursor to nitric oxide, which functions as a vasodilator.

Main functions: blood pressure regulation and circulation via vasodilation, supports cardiovascular health, promotes wound healing, enhances the immune system, assists with detoxification of endogenous ammonia compounds, associated with increases in growth hormone release from the pituitary gland.

Common signs and symptoms of deficiency or sub-optimal nutrient status: arginine is a non-essential amino acid which is capable of being synthesised in the bodies of healthy individuals, however there are certain individuals that may benefit from higher intakes of supplemental arginine to align with their lifestyles and wellness goals.

Good dietary sources: red meat, chicken, fish, certain dairy products, nuts, seeds, peanuts, whole grains, legumes, and chocolate.

Safety: Considered to be well tolerated by most and one of the least toxic of all amino acids. Even very high dosages (at levels 30-60 times that of which is dispensed as a daily dose by CUSTOMISED SUPPLEMENTS) have shown very few adverse effects in healthy individuals.

People who may benefit from supplementing with this amino acid: those with depressed immune function, people with digestive system complications (especially in the intestines) and those who exercise frequently and/or intensely.

Glutamine (as L-glutamine) is the most abundant free amino acid in the body. It is a preferred source of fuel for the small-intestinal mucosa and plays a key role in maintaining small-intestinal structure and function.

Main functions: supports gastrointestinal integrity and function, promotes immune function as a key fuel source for select immune cells, prevents infection, helps to maintain the body’s acid/alkaline balance, is a necessary part of DNA and RNA synthesis, increases GABA in the brain.

Common signs and symptoms of deficiency or sub-optimal nutrient status: despite being a non-essential amino acid, the concentration of glutamine in skeletal muscle and plasma fall under conditions of severe physiological stress such as extreme or prolonged endurance exercise, infection, major burns or surgery. In periods of acute or prolonged physical stress, supply of glutamine may be inadequate to meet increased tissue demands, and the lack of glutamine can contribute to impaired immune function and an increase in intestinal permeability or ‘leaky gut’.

Good dietary sources: red meat, chicken, eggs, soy proteins, fermented foods, milk, yoghurt, raw spinach, raw parsley, cabbage and some fermented foods.

Safety: No serious adverse effects have been reported with the use of oral glutamine supplementation, even at high dosages in the range of 20 g or more per day, except for those with serious liver or kidney issues.

People who may benefit from supplementing with this amino acid: those that restrict or avoid animal proteins, people who are also supplementing with vitamin B12, B6 and/or methylfolate, those who are highly active, those with gastrointestinal disease and those who drink large volumes of alcohol.

Methionine (as L-methionine) is an essential amino acid and a precursor to cysteine, both of which function as building blocks for protein synthesis. Methionine is also involved in the synthesis of carnitine and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM-e).

Main functions: antioxidant activity, as a methyl donor, contributes towards the metabolism and availability of folate via methylation cycle, important in the synthesis of creatine, acetylcholine, carnitine, melatonin adrenaline and glutathione, mood support.

Common signs and symptoms of deficiency or sub-optimal nutrient status: as an essential amino acid that is found mostly in animal meat, eggs, seafood and dairy, there is a risk that vegetarians, vegans and those people that limit their animal proteins/eggs/nuts/etc. intake may not meet the recommended daily intake set by the National Health and Medical Research Council. Alcoholism and those suffering from coeliac disease, irritable bowel syndrome and/or inflammatory bowel disorders may also increase the demand for methionine.

Good dietary sources: red meat, chicken, fish, eggs and whole grains.

Safety: In reasonable supplemental dosages, no side effects have been consistently noted.

People who may benefit from supplementing with this amino acid: people that have a hard time relaxation and experience poor sleep quality, those under chronic stress and those with concentration or focus challenges.

Theanine (as L-theanine) is a non-dietary amino acid that is structurally similar to glutamine and both of the neurotransmitters that are produced from it (GABA and glutamate). It is known to reach and function within the brain following oral ingestion, being rapidly absorbed in the small intestine with close to 100% bioavailability.

Main functions: neuroprotective, induces relaxation without overt sedation, associated with improvements in attention and has been linked to reductions in the perception of stress.

Common signs and symptoms of deficiency or sub-optimal nutrient status: theanine is a non-essential and non-dietary amino acid, meaning that it is incapable of deficiency.

Good dietary sources: the theanine compound can be found in tea derived from the camellia sinensis plant.

Safety: No known side effects have been noted at typical dosages.

People who may benefit from supplementing with this ingredient: ageing males with increased oestrogenic activity, those that have a higher requirement for antioxidants (including people that consume alcohol in excess).

Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) is a derivative of glucobrassicin, which can be found abundantly in some cruciferous vegetables. It’s probably best known for its anti-aromatic, anti-oestrogenic effects.

Main functions: hormonal modulation and the inhibition of oestrogen synthesis, modulation of cellular signalling, has been considered chemo-preventative in some scientific literature due to the inverse relationship identified in observational studies between cruciferous vegetable intake and cancer risk – please note that this area is well beyond the scope of CUSTOMISED SUPPLEMENTS and we will not recommend or promote I3C for any related therapeutic purposes.

Good dietary sources: broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, collard greens, kale, kohlrabi, mustard greens, radish, rutabaga, and turnips.

Safety: No known adverse effects have been reliably reported with modest dosages of indole-3-carbinol. At high dosages of 800 mg per day (about four times the dosage supplied by CUSTOMISED SUPPLEMENTS) and above, disequilibrium, tremors and gastrointestinal discomfort has been noted.

People who may benefit from supplementing with this ingredient: people that are highly active (especially those participating in endurance-type aerobic activity) and these who require immune system support.

Cordyceps is a genus of fungi that contain contains certain biochemicals that contains key active ingredients such as adenosine and cordycepic acid, along with a host of phytonutrients.

Main functions: the clinical research on cordyceps sinensis is limited, however there is evidence to suggest that it has energy-production and oxygen utilisation qualities (aerobic ATP production), supports the immune system via stimulating NK cell production, is anti-inflammatory and promotes antioxidant activity.

Safety: Considered to be well-tolerated with no consistently reported adverse effects among healthy populations. If you have an autoimmune disease, are pregnant or breastfeeding, please do not consume cordyceps sinensis until you have discussed it with your doctor.

People who may benefit from supplementing with this ingredient: people with blood sugar dysregulation (including diabetics) and those with elevated levels of LDL-cholesterol.

Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several tree species from the genus Cinnamomum and as a supplement, is best known as a hypoglycaemic aid.

Main functions: helps blood sugar regulation by reducing plasma glucose via enhanced insulin sensitivity, antioxidant properties, anti-inflammatory, may help to reduce LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood.

Good dietary sources: cinnamon quills and powders.

Safety: Cinnamon is a food that is commonly consumed without any adverse effects. Those allergic to cinnamon or Peru Balsam should avoid ingesting any cinnamon or cinnamon-containing supplements.

People who may benefit from supplementing with this amino acid derivative: those with chronic congestion of the pulmonary system, people that consume alcohol in excess and those with known risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a derivative of the amino acid, cysteine which functions as a precursor to the body’s master antioxidant, glutathione. In many circumstances, the availability of cysteine is the rate-limiting factor in glutathione synthesis.

Main functions: antioxidant activity (by itself and as a precursor to glutathione), a mucolytic agent that can assist with reducing congestion in the airways, promotes liver detoxification and has been linked to a reduction in risk for cardiovascular disease.

Good dietary sources: red meat (including beef and pork), eggs, chicken, turkey, oat flakes, seafood, wheat, yoghurt, cottage cheese.

Safety: NAC is generally well tolerated in modest supplemental dosages. High dosages of cysteine of 7 g or more has shown to be harmful and should be avoided.

People who may benefit from supplementing with this ingredient: those people with poor-functioning immune systems, people experience inflammation, those with high blood pressure or elevated cholesterol and people with circulatory issues.

Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a well-known food that is rich in organosulfur compounds (including allicin) and has been used for an array of health benefits and treatments for thousands of years. It’s probably best known for its support for the immune system along with its antimicrobial and cardio-protective qualities.

Main functions: powerful antioxidant qualities, anti-inflammatory, supports the vascular endothelium and promotes circulation via nitric oxide synthesis, contributes towards the reduction of cholesterol synthesis, may help to prevent cardiovascular disease, promotes the immune system and is antibacterial and antifungal, reduces excessive clotting, may help to lower blood pressure.

Good dietary sources: whole garlic and garlic preparations, onions.

Safety: Garlic is a food that is commonly consumed without any adverse effects. Excessive, or very high levels of garlic supplementation may impact the breath and body odour and in the very sensitive, may cause some gastrointestinal distress.

Those taking anticoagulant medication, suffering from gastric ulcers or with a fructose malabsorption issue should consult their doctor before supplementing with garlic.

References

Bailey, R., West, J. & Black, R. (2015). The Epidemiology of Global Micronutrient Deficiencies.
Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 66 (suppl 2):22-33 https://doi.org/10.1159/000371618

Braun, L. and Cohen, M. (2015). Herbs & Natural Supplements, an evidence based guide (4th Ed.). Elsevier. ISBN 9780729541718

Gaby, A. (2017). Nutritional Medicine (2nd ed.). Concord, NH: Fritz Perlberg Publishing.

Hechtman, L. (2012). Clinical Naturopathic Medicine (1st Ed.) Elsevier.

IMgateway.net – Integrative Medicine Gateway. (2017). IMGateway. Retrieved 9 August 2017, from http://bioceuticals.imgateway.net/

Oregon State University. (2016). Linus Pauling Institute: Micronutrient Information Center. Retrieved from http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/

University of Maryland Medical Center, (2017), Complementary and Alternative Medicine Guide, Retrieved 1 October 2017, from http://www.umm.edu/health/medical/altmed

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